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Learning outcomes

Most pupils will understand/be able to:

  • The need for safe and sensible behaviour, responding to instructions
  • How to prepare for an outdoor activity
  • What limestone is and be able to identify stalactites/stalagmites, other features
  • The past, and the history of lead mining in the Peak District
  • Experience success, a sense of achievement in responding to challenge

Some pupils will have the opportunity to:

  • Understand how limestone was formed and how old it is
  • Describe the basics of cave formation
  • Identify some types of fossils and understand what a fossil is
  • Understand that light travels in a straight line

Key words/phrases

Calcite, Carboniferous, Conservation, Determination, Fossil, Geology, Lead Mining, Limestone, Perseverance, Properties and Behaviour of Light, Reef, Stalactite, Stalagmite, White Peak.

Curriculum links


Identifying and solving problems as in outdoor activities; adapting to unfamiliar contexts; recognise hazards, control risks; determination to succeed; healthy physical activity


Physical and human characteristics of real places


Scientific thinking, evidence from observations


Work in groups, different roles and responsibilities


Half day activity.


Suitable cave venue, e.g. Carlswark.


Cave session. Activity is always led by a fully qualified member of Hagg Farm staff.

Supporting Materials

Rock activity curriculum pack.

Health and safety

Appropriate clothing and footwear required. Cover cuts with a waterproof plaster; wash hands after activity; care for, use and return equipment in good state.  Cave safety pack (with first aid kit, emergency shelter etc), technical equipment, mobile phone and any personal medication (inhalers etc,). Risk assessment no. 1-9. Pupil ratio 1:12 plus helper. AALA licensed.

Activity session

  • Briefing on aims of activity, safety, location, environmental issues, limestone and formation of caves.
  • Clear explanation of the activity: choice of cave appropriate to group’s needs.
  • Discussion of teamwork, involvement and leadership, (esp. in relation to safety).
  • Appropriate personal protective equipment issued.
  • Warm up in small caves: especially good introduction for any nervous student.
  • Completion of appropriate cave circuit depending on time and group.
  • Discussion of formation of limestone and cave processes.
  • Discussion of past history of the area and the lead mining industry.
  • Students have opportunity to experience complete darkness, the behaviour of light, the cave environment and potential risks.


(at Hagg Farm if cold/wet)

  • Have learning outcomes above been met?
  • A range of reviewing techniques with students using writing, speaking skills and creativity to express feelings about activity, performance, involvement, teamwork.
  • Scientific, geographical and historical learning linking to curriculum, as above.
  • PE: new skills and learning; guidance re progressing caving further.

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